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10437 - Why does the virtual traffic manager (vTM) not evenly distribute traffic when using Session Persistence?

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Last Modified Date11/25/2017 11:21 PM
This article provides information about known issues with session persistence causing unevenly distribute traffic with vTM.
Problem or Goal
When using Session Persistence class (such as IP based Session Persistence) on a pool with more than one (1) backend node, this may impact the load distribution logic of the vTM and eventually some backend nodes will receive more traffic than others.
This issue occurs due to session persistence overrides the load balancing algorithm. When vTM receives a connection from a client that is part of a previous session, then the vTM will try to send it to the same node regardless of the load balancing algorithm.

Here are a few scenarios that may cause an uneven traffic/load distribution:
  • Clients with various request rates: For example, there are two clients that are actively sending traffic. If both clients are sending traffic at the same rate/frequency (i.e. both clients send 50 requests per hour), so each node will receive 50 requests. However, in the real world, this is not always true as some clients, or a subset of clients that are part of the same session, may send relatively more requests. This will result in some backend nodes will end up getting more requests.
  • Backend node failures: Another reason is if a backend node fails, then all the requests for that node are load balanced over the next available nodes. This creates new sessions to the new node(s). Depending on how long the node is inaccessible, and how many sessions are sent from the failed node, this will result a node receiving very few requests when it recovers.
  • NAT: If most clients are behind a NAT device and are using the NAT device source address, then all sessions will end up on the same backend node. This only affects IP based session persistence. 
If load distribution is the critical factor for the backend applications/servers to operate normally then additional configuration consideration is required. For example, investigate/use a different session persistence class, use a custom logic in Traffic Script rule using universal session persistence or avoid session persistence (if the backend application does not need it).


  • When there is uneven traffic distribution caused by session persistence, then clearing the session persistence cache will allow the vTM to redistribute the traffic using the load balancing algorithm.
Currently, the only way to clear a session persistence is to rename the session persistence class. We have feature requests to give the administrators the ability (using GUI, API, Traffic Script) to clear session persistence cache and the ability to query the session persistence cache (RFE references: VTM-21533, VTM-9135, VTM-9141, VTM-11430). 
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